Dig It: Research

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Dig Deep: Resources

We may sound like foodie savants, but there are a lot of people and organizations we turn to for our information.

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Month Without Monsanto

In 2010, April tried to avoid all Monsanto products for a month. In October 2012, we're doing it with her.

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Trust Issues

Written by Jazz Glastra.

Question: Is raw milk safe?

Answer: Under the right circumstances, yes.

farmI was feeling a bit uninspired about this post, so I did what any reasonable person with writer’s block would do: I asked my best friend to tell me what to write. “What worries you most about food safety?” I asked. “I wish packaging said more about how things are made. Meat and veggies, particularly.” In return, I quipped, “here's a hint: if it comes in a package, you might not want to eat it.”

I decided to research the food safety controversy surrounding raw milk, instead. Raw milk has not gone through pasteurization, a process which kills bacteria by applying heat. Critics of pasteurization argue that pasteurization kills all bacteria, not just pathogenic ones, which results in “dead,” less healthful milk. Enzymes and proteins in raw milk are also damaged during the pasteurization process.

A quick Google search turns up a host of pages that are either staunchly pro- or anti-raw milk. My first stop was the Centers for Disease Control website. This seemed like a reputable enough source. The CDC pleads, “Make the best decision for the health of your family. If you want to keep milk in your family’s diet, protect them by not giving them raw milk.”  I also found three scare-your-pants-off videos about people who became dangerously ill from infections traced back to raw milk. The testimonials—complete with dramatic photography and concerned male narration—reminded me of something I’d seen in sensational programs like Dateline NBC. This, combined with the complete lack of balance on the issue, made me wonder just how fact-based the CDCs information was.

My next stop was Real Raw Milk Facts, a website that purports to tell straight facts about raw milk. However, there were several sketchy claims—like the side by side nutrition facts comparison between raw milk and pasteurized showing them to be equally nutritious. Last I checked, things like enzymes and bacteria are not reported on nutrition labels. This, too, set off my crap-o-meter and I easily discovered that the site is funded by a Seattle-based lawyer who specializes in food poisoning cases. Not exactly the "straight facts" source I was looking for.

The potential danger of raw milk stems from two possible problem areas: the health of the animal and the handling of the product. No one is advocating drinking raw milk from grain-fed, overly confined, sick cows. That part makes sense. The tricky part comes in the handling of milk. No fecal matter or bacteria should ever come in contact with the milk. That means absolutely no dirty hands, udders, equipment, or flies. If you purchase your milk in a grocery store, you have no way of knowing how it was handled or the condition of the animals that contributed to the product. Of course there are rules, inspections, and testing, but these are no guarantee of a particular product’s safety. See: almost every outbreak of e. coli.

What this boils down to is an issue of trust. Whenever you buy a packaged product, whether that product is a box of cereal, a carton of milk, or a bag of baby spinach, that package represents a series of steps that remove you from your food source. Maybe I’m paranoid, but I’ve lost trust in labeled and packaged food that is supposed to make your food look safe and clean. Are you going to rely on regulations and labels that tell you your food is safe, or are you going to wash the daylights out of your spinach and cook your steaks within an inch of their….er, lives? I’ll take the latter.

If you know your farmer and you’ve shaken your cow’s hoof, you might not have the same trust issues I do. I’m no germaphobe, but I’m also not ready to throw caution to the wind. That goes for raw milk as well as just about everything we eat. All I’m saying is, if it comes in a package, you might not want to eat it.






GMOs, European-Style

Written by Rebecca Maclean.

My family has a soft spot for Europe. It’s partly a ‘grass is always greener’ issue since we’re regularly fed up with American-style politics, and partly a ‘returning to our roots’ issue since we’re Celtic mutts with some Angle and Saxon blood thrown in for good measure. Both my husband and I studied abroad in Europe in college, and one of our bucket list items is to live in Europe (somewhere – anywhere – we don’t really care!).

We last visited the region when we traveled to Ireland and England in 2010. This was the first trip we’d taken there together, and the first trip we had taken since my husband had started tweaking his diet to avoid grains (he has issues with systemic 4705473281_cbb0271322_binflammation that improve when he goes gluten-free, and improve even further when he stays away from grains altogether). But he was going to the land of Guinness, the beer that is basically bread in a glass, and my husband’s Irish heritage would not let him not drink beer. It just wasn’t an option. So he resigned himself to feeling like crap while he imbibed.

Except that it didn’t really happen. No one was as surprised as he was when he didn’t feel like garbage after eating bread or drinking a beer. While he still felt better when he didn’t eat large volumes of grains, the difference was very apparent to him.

While we don’t really know what made the difference, we suspect it may have something to do with the restrictions on GMOs in Europe. Currently banned in six European countries, a proposed EU rule (2010) would enable member countries to ban cultivation of all GMO crops if it were passed. The regulations on GMO foods in the EU are much more stringent than those in the United States, requiring an extensive food safety review before being allowed to be cultivated. GMOs are also required to be labeled in the EU – either on the label or next to the food if sold ‘loose.’

Researching the differences in how the US and EU manage GMOs has given us another reason to love Europe. To me, labeling GMO foods is a no-brainer. I’d like to know if someone has been tinkering with my food at the DNA level, so I can decide for myself if I want to ingest it – or have my children ingest it. In Europe, I can make that choice. Here at home, I’m left wondering.

Dig Deeper:

These companies don’t want GMOs labeled in California

Links In This Post:

European Commission food division

European Commission future rules

Regulation of GMOs in the EU

UK Food Standards Agency: Food Labelling

Is Europe’s ban on Monsanto’s GMO crops illegal?



Written by Rebecca Maclean.

Question: What goes through your mind when you see a sign like this?
Answer: I don't want to think about it.

I was in rural Central Pennsylvania on a work trip this summer, and grabbed a ride back to my hotel from a friend who knew the back roads. It was a beautiful July day - the sky was blue, the sun was shining, the puffy little clouds were drifting on by, and the fields of corn were rustling in the breeze. You couldn't have a more idyllic day if you tried. Except for the signs like this:


You've probably seen something similar. Occasional reminders along the road delineating what crop was  growing where, what company the seed came from, and probably what batch of seed from what source (I haven't yet found a good description of what the specific info on this sign means). Probably helpful from the farmer's perspective, or maybe the seed salesman (if there is such a person).

But also a big fat reminder that there is an awful lot of genetically modified corn out there. "Maximum Insect Protection," "Round Up Ready Technology," and even the word BRAND show the increasing proprietization of food products by huge players in the agricultural industry. Genetically modified food isn't something that I had to think of as a kid, or that my parents had to think of when they fed me, because they've only been around in large quantities for the last twenty years. The current generation of children are one giant set of guinea pigs in a nationwide (if not global) experiment with food. And since GMOs are not required to be labeled in this country, most of us don't even realize that we're eating genetically modified food.

Makes my skin crawl just thinking about it.

Dig Deeper:


Raising foodies

Written by Rebecca Maclean.

Question: How do you help your kids make smart food choices when you’re not around?

Answer: Start ‘em young.

duncan_emmy_toronto_marketI was caught completely off guard the first time my son asked my to buy him a Lunchable. BLECH. Where had I failed as a parent? We avoid kid’s menus with everything-fried-on-a-platter, favoring ethnic food places where everyone can eat something healthy. As a result, my roly-poly Michelin baby ate channa masala, pad  thai, and shawarma with gusto. Once he got to school, we packed lunches and explained why – both reading labels and talking about the shortcomings of the school lunch program. I thought he got it, until he wanted that dreaded box of bologna circles and cheese-like product squares.

Turns out he wanted to be like everyone else, for a little while. So we compromised – we bought one, only one! – and made sure he looked at the label and understood how many ingredients he couldn’t pronounce were in there. Well, they taste pretty blah when you’re used to nitrate free pepperoni and smoked turkey, so he went back to our standard packed lunch foods. But man, was I scared for a while.  We also agreed that if he ever saw anything at school that he wanted to eat, that we would make the equivalent at home. So he now knows that French fries come from a potato, and that chicken nuggets don’t have to be made from pink slurry.

It takes CONSTANT VIGILANCE to make sure your kids make good food choices. Last week at our summer block party, my now nine-year-old snuck a glass of fruit punch after at least one (maybe two) glasses of soda. He knows our ‘one and done’ rule, but I wasn’t paying attention, and he got away with it. Since we rarely drink sugary drinks, he got a stomachache and learned his lesson the hard way. Thankfully, that teachable moment didn’t involve seeing the soda and punch again.

Talking to your kids and showing them good food choices are key in this onslaught of media-focused crap alternatives. That’s why I love having a roadmap for school lunches in which your kids can participate. Sure, they may ask for, or sneak, food that you don’t like, but if they have the lessons and example from you, they’ll come back to that again and again.

Dig Deeper:

School Lunches from Around the World

Sources for this Post:

EatWhole BeVital lunchbox roadmap

Jamie Oliver chicken nugget demo


It's school lunch season again

Written by Rebecca Maclean.

Question: What's the best and worst time of the year?

Answer: If you're a parent, back to school season.

It’s the most wonderful time of the year… for parents of school-age children, at least. The scent of back-to-school flyers, sharpened pencils, and the whining of my children that summer is almost over always brings a smile to my face, big meanie that I am.

However, the specter of school lunches – Why do I have to pack my lunch? Why can’t I eat the swill that everyone else eats? – can wipe the smile right off my face. The morning fights if PB&J is the only sandwich option in the house, discussing why chocolate milk doesn’t need to be a daily drink.... ugh. I’m dreading this portion of the school year because my minions are very good at wearing down my resolve. The fact that I was completely ignored when I tried to reach out to our school district food service department to learn more about the school lunch program doesn’t help matters, either. Of course, our district is facing the specter of much larger things than kids whining about food – with the state slashing school budgets, I guess I should be lucky that my kids are in school at all.

school_garden_1I contemplated this dichotomy quite a bit while on vacation in Toronto earlier this month. While Torontonians seem to gripe about the quality of school lunches as much as Americans do, the digging I’ve done seems to indicate that, like most things in Canada, the school lunches are better there than they are here. If the school we stayed a block away from was any indication, their school gardens are certainly more involved.

I also had the good fortune while there to hear Sheila Penny from the Toronto District School Board speak at the Urban Agriculture Summit about incorporating urban agriculture and other green programming into the schools (with almost 600 schools in the Greater Toronto Area, this is the largest school district in Canada). Hearing an urban school district recognize their ability as a major landowner to impact the environment, nutrition, agriculture, and sustainability was something that, frankly, I never thought I’d hear.

school_garden_2Now that I’m back home, I’m both enthused by what I heard, and dreading running up against the brick wall of my children’s school district. But seeing best practices in the flesh, and knowing what is possible, is strengthening my resolve to make all children’s school experience a positive, sustainable one. Even if it’s just at the school lunch level, or helping in the school garden, I know it will be making a difference. And that’s worth it to me.

I’d love to hear about ways you’ve worked from the inside to make a school district (or any institution) a healthier place – feel free to leave some suggestions in the comments below.


Chicken As Biohazard

Written by Kate Darlington.

Question: Can the chicken on your plate cause a UTI?

Answer: Depends on the antibiotics it was fed.

As if we needed another reason to choose organic meat, there is increasing evidence to suggest that women are contracting life-threatening urinary tract infections (UTIs) from eating contaminated chicken. UTI’s, you say? That’s not a food-borne disease.

chix_groupThink again. The evidence is compelling and the logic isn’t too hard to follow. I “attended” a webinar last week entitled “Chicken, Life-threatening UTIs and Women’s Health,” put on byHealthy Food Action.* From the comfort of my favorite coffee shop, I was effectively scared off conventionally produced chicken for good. Microbiologist Dr. Lance Price of the Translational Genomics Research Institute outlined the basics of this frightening trend:

One in nine women will contract a UTI (also known as a bladder infection) each year. Extraintestinal Pathogenic E.coli (ExPEC) is the “dominant culprit” of these infections—causing 75-95% of the 6-8 million cases each year.

UTIs, though quite uncomfortable, can be easily treated by a simple course of antibiotics. However, doctors are seeing elevated instances of antibiotic resistance in e.coli-caused infections. When the infections can’t be treated with antibiotics, they can become life threatening. If a bladder infection moves from the urinary tract to the kidneys, then to the blood, it can very easily become fatal. And when that infection is impervious to treatment from antibiotics, there’s really nothing you can do to stop it.

There is increasing evidence to suggest that these strands of antibiotic-resistant e.coli are originating in industrial chicken production. Pathologists have observed UTI outbreaks much like they have observed other food-borne illness outbreaks. Clusters of women are being contaminated with the same drug-resistant strains of e.coli—the very same strains of e.colifound in contaminated poultry.

Almost 9 million broiler chickens are raised in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) every year in the United States. Confined in overcrowded chicken houses, microbes spread quickly between the birds. In order to mitigate potential disease and promote growth, antibiotics are added to the chickens’ feed. Animal producers use far more antibiotics than humans do—29 million pounds per year! This is inviting the evolution of drug resistance.

Drug-resistant e.coli is transferred from chickens to humans primarily through contaminated food products (as well as occupational exposure). A study by the National Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring System showed that 88% of chicken breasts are contaminated withe.coli. Once ingested, ExPEC moves from the GI tract to the urinary tract, causing a UTI.

Bladder and kidney infections are rarely considered a food-safety issue because they don’t involve digestive problems. However, the potential impact of this drug resistance is far more serious than the average bout of food poisoning.

As a consumer, it is important to take precautions to avoid contaminating yourself or others with drug resistant e.coli. Cleaning cutting surfaces and utensils, cooking meat thoroughly, and maintaining proper hygiene is essential. Better yet, look for chicken labeled with “organic” or “raised without antibiotics” to prevent the continuous development of antibiotic resistance.

But, says Dr. David Wallinga (senior advisor in Science, Food, and Health at the Institute for Agriculture, and Trade Policy), we can’t shop or cook our way out of exposures. We must change the way we raise chickens in this country through regulatory action. Currently, the FDA is focusing on “voluntary” reform, asking farmers to limit the amount of antibiotics they use and pharmaceutical companies to sell less of their product to vets and farmers. Is it any wonder the problem persists?

*A project of the Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy, Healthy Food Action is “making health the future of food and farming” by providing vital information and opportunities for action to health professionals.

Sources for this post:

Healthy Food Action webinar: “Chicken, Life-Threatening UTIs and Women’s Health”

Dig Deeper:

“Investigation: Drug Resistance, Chicken And 8 Million UTIs,” Wired, July 11, 2012.

National Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring System

“Antibiotic Resistance and Animal Production,” Keep Antibiotics Working Coalition

Healthy Food Action

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